Page name: Anatomy and related issues [Logged in view] [RSS]
2006-04-18 03:18:33
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Anatomy and related issues

Here you are free to put anything related on centaurs's health, including anatomy details but also diseases, favourite food or that kind of things!

[Larka; Wolf Sister of the Sword]
Just a small note on the skeletal structure of Centaurs; Where the human torso connects to the equestrian body, the spine is long (to accommodate the full body) and curves at the human pelvis. A natural bend in the vertebrae allows the human portion to remain upright and the horse body to keep all four hooves on the ground at the same time.

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I wrote this for a difrent forum but thought some of you might find it interesting. The mentioned chawKats are a feline taur much like a whimic.

A case for two hearts.

The chakat's unique emotional perception is likely to increase the brains demand for nutrients and oxygen. This in turn will increase the need for blood supply. A second heart in the upper chest could supply this need largely immune from the needs of the rest of the body. Most importantly the kidneys require pressure to operate while the brain requires blood flow.

Brain tissue uses more energy mas for mas than other organs and muscles in the body. This is why humans have so much capacity for circulation blood to the brain. The empathetic sense of the chawkats would likely have a larger metabolic demand and increase the need for calculating blood at least while it is active.

Without having to supply a minimum of blood to the brain the heart in the lower chest could vary it's out pout over a greater range than it might if it had sole responsibility for circulation, thus reducing energy demands when the body is at rest yet still allowing the mind to remain active.

Aside from the lungs witch handle all of the blood the brain and kidneys are the greatest demanders of circulating blood. The brain requires circulating volume to bring adequate nutrition and oxygen. The kidneys require adequate pressure to filter properly. High blood pressure is often the result of problems with the kidneys. Stroke is often caused by prolonged high blood pressure. Having two hearts allows independent control of pressure to the kidneys and flow through the brain.

I have touched briefly on three advantages of having two hearts. All of them come down to better priority to circulation to the brain and better protection for the brain. Just how that circulation might work I will discuss in a separate easy.

A case for two hearts and how might it work.

We have no mammals with two hearts to look at so we must speculate without a living model to work from. The first problem to tackle would be synchronization of pulse. Arterial circulation would require some modification from what we are familiar with. Venous return could be managed with little more than a very elastic common vane between the two hearts. Lymphatic return would be more important for the lower body. And how would two hearts respond to trauma and heart fairer.

The SA node of the upper heart would probably be in control of pulse rate most of the time. The circulatory demands of extreme physical activity might cause the lower heart's AS node to push the rate higher to meet the demands for running away from scary (or better armed) H1 factions. Both hearts along with the arteries would regulate blood pressure independently. This allows lower overall blood pressure. And better responsiveness to changing demands.

Circulation would be very straight forward. blood would leave the Left ventricles into the respective aortas and out to the body. between the hearts instead of a single major artery linking the descending aorta of the upper heart to the aortic arch of the lower heart there would be a network of arteries. The network is less vulnerable to trauma, and more able to link and buffer the out put of the two hearts. It is also simple requiring no additional valves to regulate the exchange of blood between the upper and lower torsos. The regulation would happen from the elasticity of the arteries dilating and constricting as necessary to maintain a balance between the two portions of the circulatory system.

Venous return would probably be as simple as a very elastic large vain between the hearts. A common vean we can call it. It would not be valved but able to constrict enough to keep blood available to the upper heart when th body is standing, and even more so in trauma to limit shock.

The lymphatic system collects fluid that leeks out of circulation. This lymphatic drainage would go to the closest heart. Since Lymph collects wear gravity puts it most of it would go the lower heart. As such the upper torso is always lousing circulating volume, and the lower heart would constantly pump blood up to the upper torso to replace what is lost in lymphatic drainage.

Any condition that weakened either heart could be compensated for by increasing the size of the arteries between the two aortas (called vasodilation) allowing the stronger heart to take a greater share of the load. Damage to heart muscle releases enzymes that could tiger a range of responses. Small amounts of the enzyme could stimulate vasodilation. Larger amounts could nock out the individual forcing conservation of energy. This would protect the hearts and the organs most dependent on normal circulation, the brain and kidneys.

Well there is my idea on how a two heart system might work. I have re thought my earlier idea of a system with a single major vessel from the left ventricle of the lower heart to the left atrium of the upper heart. That would make the person way to vulnerable to penetrating trauma in the upper torso, and the system described above I think would work better. Tell me what you think.

Doc Wilkie

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2004-07-17 [Larka; Wolf Sister of the Sword]: Hey. Just a small note on the skeletal structure of Centaurs; Where the human torso connects to the equestrian body, the spine is long (to accommodate the full body) and curves at the human pelvis. A natural bend in the vertebrae allows the human portion to remain upright and the horse body to keep all four hooves on the ground at the same time.

2004-08-18 [Augury]: Waaait.

2004-08-18 [Augury]: Waaait. Doesn't that mean centaurs have two hearts, two pairs of lungs, two stomachs, two livers, four kidneys, two gallbladers, two everything?

2004-08-18 [zeldazebra]: There would not need to be a pelvis at the junction the modified Tra mussels would hold the human torso up and not interfear with flexibilaty in the way a pelvis or evan colerbones would.

2004-08-18 [zeldazebra]: Multple harts would not be nessasary a small increase in the equine hart would be sufushent.

2004-08-18 [zeldazebra]: If all of the human visera are removed and replaced with an extended esofagus and bypas treakea there would be room for nerly a doubling of lung capasity in the human torso. This alone would not be enough for hevy exertion buy with paridoxical breathing as used by some birds should move enough air. The equine gut can handel human food as long as there is adiquate fiber for the equine intestin. The human torso is about the same ms as the equine head and neck. So kidnes liver splean ect should be adiquate as is. The stand out problem is how will the centuar move enough air.

2004-08-26 [May-lea]: That's an interesting consideration... Could you, like, make a drawing of where the organs should be in a centaur body?

2004-08-27 [zeldazebra]: My drawing skills are poor, amd this will take awile please be patient with me. I will work on it.

2004-08-30 [May-lea]: Thanks!

2005-01-24 [firehawk]: According to C.S.Lewis, centaurs have two stomachs.

2005-01-26 [zeldazebra]: Horses have 3 if you do not include the cecum that has no outlet. Most mamels hav multiple stomaches. Only ruminats have a truley difrent stomach structure than we do. If centuars developed in an enviernment that provided poor quality food a rumin stomach would make sence to alow the dijestion of celulose hevy foods such as grasses. this aditional stomach could go in the human torso. Without a reliable bypas mechanisum it would preclude the consumption of high quality protien due to gas build up.

2005-06-14 [Daddy Cool]: To my mind, the most plausable anatomy would be essentially a standard horses, but with larger lungs found in the human part of the centaur, and probably a larger more complex stomach to deal with the different foods. This would explain how the centaur gets its high stamina, as shown in various sources such as Fantasia, where the centaurs dance for rather a long time

2005-11-02 [Samita]: What do the foals/babies look like? a foal with a baby on top or what? I always imagined that the human part of a newborn centaur would look like a kid of about 5. What do you think?

2005-11-14 [zeldazebra]: John Varly in his Books Wizard and Titan makes a similar asumption. dealing with the mental development isue by sujesting that they are borne with language and spend the later portion of the pregnency privy to ther mothers thoughts. Giving them a 4 - 5 year head start on intalectual development. However since they grow to adult size in about4 years they are still quite nieve (sp) by human standards as young adults.

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